What's "Green"? Going beyond materials to context, process & measurement
A writer for the Los Angeles Times asked, “If you plop a green building in the middle of nowhere, is it still green?” It’s an excellent question that reflects a growing sophistication in the way we view material resources. It’s not just about the resources contained in a product or building itself, or the resources used in the making of that product or building, or even the resources used during the operation of that product or building. It’s also about context, process, and measurement. In the case of green buildings, there’s a movement to consider the energy occupants use to travel to a building as part of that building’s efficiency. The ASHRAE standard (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) for high-performing buildings looks at the availability of services and transportation within walking distance of a building. Location matters.
Process matters too. New developments in the science of behavior change can help designers figure out how to create “enabling environments” that encourage more sustainable behaviors. And new technologies that focus on process changes, such as smart building systems, can bring about dramatic resource savings. In transportation, the “restricted crossing U-turn intersection” is a design that uses a process solution to ease traffic rather than building more lanes. The key in each of these cases is that they are about significantly reducing resource use while delivering the same (or better) benefits. They’re not add-ons and do not tie up additional resources that could be deployed in producing wealth elsewhere.
Finally, as the field of green building, green product labels, and metrics matures, people are thinking about how to make adjustments that will bring about the intended results. BuildingGreen.com suggests basing residential energy codes and energy incentives on total predicted energy consumption rather than energy intensity (per square foot) to reward smaller homes, not just more efficient large ones. Cascadia Green Building Council’s Living Building Challenge requires that buildings be operational for at least 12 months before they can gain certification, so certification is based on actual rather than modeled performance.
Overall, these activities indicate a trend towards a more holistic approach to sustainable design, one that looks beyond embodied materials and takes a more critical look at how a product or building is actually used.
Reclaim, Repurpose, Redeploy
The reclamation and repurposing of materials is a critical aspect of dMASS. We must work to recover and reuse resources already in service and then redeploy them to generate more wealth. So, it’s exciting to see so many innovative new technologies and businesses finding new uses for “waste.” D-Build (great name!) focuses on green demolitions and also links buyers to reclaimed materials and new products made from those materials.
Think about the products you’re making right now. What will happen to them after their useful life? Can the materials in them be reclaimed easily? Is there “waste” from your process that could become a valuable material input for someone else? Looking at your inputs, can you identify a reclaimed material that can substitute for a virgin material? See Howard’s latest post for more on mining above grade.
Dual Purpose Performance
Toyota is working on a new motor that illustrates how you can simultaneously address multiple resource-related issues. To increase its resource security and decrease its dependence on China, Toyota is developing an electric motor that does not require rare earth elements. Their solution is also designed to be more efficient and less costly.
In Philadelphia, the Four Seasons Hotel is demonstrating how small-scale turbines can generate power and much more. The microturbines installed on the roof of the hotel use a combined heat and power (CHP) technology that not only provides 30 percent of the hotel’s electricity needs, but also 100 percent of domestic hot water and 15 percent of heating needs.
Here are four works worth a quick read:
- “The Number One Key to Innovation: Scarcity” from the Harvard Business Review describes a project in which researchers identified no less than 162 factors in innovation, but found one critical element: “the value of scarcity as a spur to creative problem-solving.”
- A chart from The Economist shows energy intensity (the energy required to produce a unit of GDP) declining across most of the globe and predicts that the current differences in energy intensity between nations will even out by 2030.
- “Materiality Analysis and Conflict Minerals” offers a short discussion on the relationship between materials, supply chain, sustainability, and corporate responsibility.
- Good has a thoughtful article on economic development, the global demand for energy, and the need for an immense breakthrough in technology.
For Fun: Go Retro
If you’re a designer or if you just like to marvel at how much music technology has changed in a short time, check out this vintage Sony Walkman ad. It’s interesting to see how they designed the device down to the size of a cassette, eliminating unneeded mass.
Finally, some interesting dMASS finds from the week:
- “We need to grab energy from wherever we can find it” is the idea behind piezoelectric energy harvesting designs. And here’s an example of a bionic energy harvester being tested by Canadian soldiers.
- Shipping pallets get a second life as part of a green office design.
- Would you sleep in a capsule? China's new budget hotel has a small footprint for guests.
- Check out these theoretical architectural designs, some of which are inspired by nature.
- If you shop at this store, you can buy only what you need. They sell everything in bulk by weight, resulting in resource savings in packaging and shipping.
- A super-light, stackable chair.
- What are the benefits of lawns? Why not use that space for edibles – more benefit, less waste.
- Ford’s new EcoBoost engine boasts better mileage with the same horsepower.
- Ford is also using lightweighting to enable it to reduce engine size while maintaining power and increasing efficiency.
- These great bio-inspired designs include lighter, strong building materials inspired by bird skulls.
- The talk in IT is about dematerialization and waste.